- African Manifesto
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African Manifesto

The origin of the African Manifesto (AM) is based on Marcus A. Garvey's philosophies and opinions as advocated by Carlos Cooks. Who founded the African Nationalist Pioneer Movement (A.N.P.M) in 1940.   Ultimately, it will not interfere or alter any ongoing programs. Most importantly, it will operate silently in the background by adding structure, and direction for Africans worldwide.
 
This is an open invitation for activists, organizations, religious communities, newspapers, along with blogs to participate in this global undertaking.  A major goal is to use "AFRICAN" to identify all of its citizens regardless of their birthplace. This will be a permanent replacement for “BLACK.”  
An overwhelming majority of its people have been seduced by misconceptions, and distortions' embedded in western history.
Of major significance, Africans must reject history based on their former colonialist narratives that is counter productive to their progress. As an antidote, a brief chronological outline of ancient and medieval history from an African perspective will be presented.
 
Which will be followed by the most important goal advocating economic development  among African's worldwide.


African Ethnicity

We shall begin with Africans in ancient history whom were first in developing kingdoms and empires. Which had its beginning in time worn kingdoms of Nubian, Kush, Songhai, the Kongo and Ethiopian cultures. Which is along with Great Zimbabwe, and the Kilwa City States. Most importantly, there were several historical events that have impeded African progress.

We shall begin Beginning the Arab's invasion of North Africa in 652, which gave birth to five countries surrounding the Mediterranean: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania, and Sudan? Unfortunately, in today's world Africans, living in these countries mistakenly is believed to be Arab.

By 1430, Iberian expansion off the African coast was well under way with efforts to colonize Madeira, the Canary Islands, and the Azores. Over the following half century, Portuguese seafarers gradually explored southwards along Africa’s western coast. Notably, Spanish ships arrived soon after the Portuguese, leading to competition between the Iberian powers until
formal negotiations at the close of the fifteenth century prohibited Spanish exploration and commerce south of the Sahara.

Another important element is the Tran Saharan Arab slave trade of 10 to 28 million Africans slaves. This is together with the Christopher Columbus second voyage (1493- 1496) on September 24, 1493, with 17 ships and about 1200 men. His aim was to conquer and colonize the region. Notably,
this was the beginning of Europe's Conquest. Which gave birth to slavery that was followed by colonialism.




Portugal's  Conquest & Slave Trade

During the 1500s Portugal modified their caravel's triangular sails on boats crossing the Indian ocean into a rectangle one. As results, they had a huge advantage during their “Voyages of Discovery”. Consequently, at the end of the fifteenth century, Portugal's merchants could circumvent commercial, political, and military strongholds in both Latin America and islands off the coast o Africa .

They started the European slave trade  when Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal sent a trading expedition to Africa,  in 1441. By 1444, a ‘cargo’ of 235 enslaved Africans had been brought from Lagos, Nigeria and sent back to Portugal.

In 1453, the Muslim Ottoman Turks successfully captured Christian Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) was a watershed moment in history.  They successfully   blocked Europe's main source for spices, silks, paper, porcelain, glass, as well as other luxury goods produced in India, China, Japan, along with the spice islands (Indonesia).

The passage to the East Indies was blocked  by the Ottoman Muslim Turks who controlled overland routes to the Orient. Which  made this trip too dangerous and also, expensive. This event in history benefitted  Portugal, who ascended to a world power during Europe's " Age of Discovery " as it built up a vast empire, focusing on colonizing Brazil along with dealing with a small trade with African kingdoms.

Mindfully, Portugal used African slaves in developing their sugar plantations in Madeira, which is an island off the west coast of Africa. During the same time, they built Elmina Castle in 1482, on the coast of modern Ghana. It was the first – and for many centuries – the largest, European building constructed in tropical Africa. Yet its grandeur, as well as its picturesque surroundings with blue skies, sandy beaches, and tropical palms, disguise a dark history – of this slave Castle was the last place that thousands of African  would ever see of their homeland. Many horrors transpired within the walls of the fortress, which have never been erased by time.

Consequently, Lisbon, was a major port in the Portuguese slave trade. They sent their ships to islands off West Africa coast. Keep in mind, Spain was given control of Latin America, which allowed them to conquer the Aztecs, Incas and Maya's civilization. In a way, you can say they hit the modern-day lottery. Not only was their victims organized, they had an abundance of gold, silver and precious jewels. As a bonus, they had no immunity to Europeans disease, consequently, in a short period of time, their victim's population was completely decimated.  
On the other hand, when the Portuguese arrived in Brazil in the early 1500s, their situation as colonialist was very different from Spain arriving in the already establish Aztec and Mayan empires. They did not find established civilization with hoards of precious metals for plunder, or discipline organizations geared to provide steady tribute which they could be appropriated and shipped back to Portugal.

In developing their  settlements, it became clear  it was counter-productive to use indigenous people as slaves. Not only, they had a high mortality rate when exposed to Western diseases. They ran away by hiding into their natural habitant.

A larger proportion of Portugal economic gains came from Brazil development of commodities being exported into commercial profit. A century later,  they began exporting African slaves for themselves and to other European powers.

In its broadest sense, African arrival in Latin America ( South, and Central America, and Mexico) predates the history of the United States by the time the English colony of Virginia was founded in 1607, slavery had already been present in the Americas for a century.

Hidden in western-history, only a small portion of slaves were sent to the British colonies in the United States. The overwhelming majority were sent to Brazil. In today's contemporary world there are over 130 million Africans in Brazil, 45 million in the United States, and five million in Columbia, South America. Notably, they have the third largest African population outside of Africa and the second largest in Latin America, after Brazil.