-

African Manifesto
Header picture

Medieval History



 

Appropriately,   a  historical outline of five centuries  will be  presented.  Beginning with 1500s, when the first slaves were sent to Portugal and Brazil  and will begin with Haitian rebellion.  After a long 12 year war won their independence from France in   January 1, 1804 and end in the eighteenth century when Ethiopians defeated an Italian Army  on March 1, 1896.    However, it would be remiss not  to give a brief history of ancient and medieval history.  History began in Africa and spread throughout the world. The main method of development was its waterways of the Kongo, Niger and Nile Rivers. Mindfully, these civilizations begin upriver and  not at the foot  as western culture proclaims and as a matter of fact, the world shared from African development of farming, the domestication of animals and fishing.

These contributions led to the creation of other civilizations around the world. It can be said with a strong degree of certainty Africans gave birth to humanity. The evidence is a discovery of Dinkinesh in Ethiopia (known as " Lucy " in western culture) along with Dr. Louis Leakey and his wife, Mary, who uncovered evidence that at least two different manlike creatures lived in Africa almost two million years ago.  Before proceeding, there are two major misconceptions that has to be addressed.

The first is Africans have no written language; This false allegation is easily dispelled with Ethiopia's Amharic as well as, Amazigh (a.k.a. Berbers) written scripts. And also, when Nelson Mandela was President, he paid to preserve libraries found in Timbucktu. South African Professor Rodney Thebe Medupe analyzed some of the text, which reveals this Timbucktu material was written in Fulfulde, Hausa,  and Tamasheq. The second,   there is no Ruins beside those in Egypt. This is easily dispelled by 11 earth built churches in Lalilbela, Ethiopia. The town was originally known as Roha. It was renamed after the 12th-century King Lalilbela, who commissioned these extraordinary churches. These churches were not constructed they were excavated. Each church was created by first carving a wide trench on all four sides of the rock, then painstakingly chiseling out the interior.

The Walls of Benin were a combination of ramparts and moats, called Lya in the local language, used as a defense of this historic Benin City, formerly of the now-defunct Kingdom of Benin and now the capital of present-day Edo State of Nigeria. It was considered the largest structure lengthwise, second only to the Great Wall of China, and was hailed as the greatest earthwork in the world. With more recent work by Patrick Darling [of Bournemouth University, UK], it has been established as a man-made longest structure in the world, larger than Sungbo's Eredo. Its length was over 9942 miles of earth boundaries. It was estimated that earliest construction began in 800 AD and continued into the mid 1400s.

Another example is Great Zimbabwe. These Ruins are one of the most important archaeological sites in Africa, giving testimony to the lost civilization of the Shona. This city existed here from the 11th century on, with over ten thousand inhabitants. Great Zimbabwe ( " stone houses " ) was a main regional trading center, its wealth associated with (Arab) gold trading. There also trade links with East Africa (Kilwa), and fragments of Persian and Chinese's pottery have been found at the site. Arab and European travelers in the 16th century sent marveling report's home from this place and its impressive stone walls. The site was abandoned in the 15th century (for Khami) because of a lack of food and firewood. The ruins nowadays are spread out over three main areas: the Hill Ruins, the Great Enclosure and the Valley Ruins. There are four important historical events, which explain life from an African perspective in today's contemporary world.

These historical events occurred thousands of years before western civilization. Which is indisputable evidence humanity begun in Africa? Whom migrated and populated world-wide in during this process developed organized societies becoming fathers and mothers of mankind; beginning with ancient Nubia, and also, Kush, which was followed by West African medieval kingdoms of Mali, Songhai among many others. Representing Central, East and South Africa respectively are kingdoms of the Kongo, Kilwa City states along with Great Zimbabwe.

 Moorish  Conquest of  the Iberian Peninsula

It began when Arabs from the  Arabian Peninsula invaded North Africa, in 639 AD with their sword and Islam, now they are accepted as original indigenous inhabitants of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria together with Morocco. In order to understand European's conquest  understanding this  history is important. The first event occurred in 711, when a combined force of  Berbers together with Moors crossed the Strait of Gibraltar conquering Iberia, which is present-day Spain and Portugal.

Factually, The ancient Romans thoroughly documented lives of indigenous Africans commonly referred to as Moors, or Berbers or Amazigh, whom is ethnic North Africans. They lived in areas stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Niger River. Regardless, some mistakenly or deliberately take for granted they are Arabs because of their Islamic faith. Several years after their invasion, Spain declared a " Reconquest " that was a watershed moment in history. This was a period of over 700 years of constant warfare between Moorish and/or Berber's armies, until its fall of Granada January 2, 1492.

Another part of this spectrum was the Trans-Saharan slave trade in North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. It began with the introduction of the camel in the 7th century. Extending from the West African kingdoms and across the Sahara Desert to Europe, the trade route connected many African empires to the European world such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. More importantly, the trans-Saharan slave trade is deeply hidden in history, which both pre-dates and post-dates the trans-Atlantic slave trade has destroyed at least twice as many lives as the latter.

This slave-trade was more brutal than its trans-Atlantic counterpart, with millions of people being captured, bought, sold, and forcibly dislocated from their homeland to serve the elites throughout the Middle East and North Africa in various domestic, military, and sexual capacities. Profoundly, Arab's slave trade was accompanied by an entire culture that accepted it and an ideology that condoned it. Indeed, in modern Arabic parlance, the word for slave and/or African has become almost interchangeable with many people not even pausing to consider the derogatory and oppressive connotations of the terminology they are using to designate their fellow human beings.

Between the 10th to the 19th century, historians often dispute the number slaves who were transported and the number various from 20 to 28 million slaves being exported. Slaves were typically sent north, while salt plus other goods were sent south. The route of trans-Saharan slave trade was sometimes used to send large numbers of African people to be slaves, servants, as well as soldiers. Many women were captured to be sold as wives.
 
Long before African slaves were ever brought to Caribbean Islands, South or North America,  the Zanj   African slaves incited a rebellion in the Middle East and went head to head with an empire. Surprisingly, it occurred in present-day Basra, Iraq. The insurrection began in 869 A.D. when Zanj slaves—an Arabic term used to describe East Africans. Spurred on by promises of land and freedom, they began conducting night raids on nearby cities in order to seize supplies and liberate fellow slaves. What began as a humble revolt slowly grew into a full-scale insurrection that lasted 15 years. Slaves, Bedouins and serfs all joined with the rebels, who at their height  numbered over 500,000. Notably, this was the largest slave rebellion in history.   These revolutionaries even amassed a navy and controlled as many as six fortified cities in modern-day Iraq. The  Rebellion would finally end in 883 after the Abbasid army mobilized and conquered the rebel capital.

Portugal and Spain's Conquests

In 1249, Portugal expelled African Moors,  but neighboring Castile (Spain) was unable to achieve this goal until January 2, 1492. What followed was a series of events that marks an important step that contributed to Portugal's Empire as well as European colonial expansion. Beginning with Ceuta ( located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a western border with Morocco.) it was conquered by Portugal on August 21, 1415. They  establish trading posts as well as colonies surrounding Africa’s coastline and at the same time creating a small slave trade. Notably, those slaves who were not sent to Brazil or Spanish, colonies were sold in Europe as servants.

During Portugal's sea going experiences, they observed caravel's triangular sails on boats crossing the Indian ocean. They skillfully changed this navigational sail into a rectangle one. These caravel’s excellence lay in its capacity for sailing to be windward, as well as being capable of remarkable speed. This extraordinary vessel gained fame with the Portuguese voyages of discovery. The end of the fifteenth century, Portugal's merchants could circumvent commercial, political, and military strongholds in both North Africa and in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.  In 1453, the  Ottoman Turks   captured Christian Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) which was western Europe’s main source for spices, silks, paper, porcelain, glass, as well as other luxury goods produced in India, China, and  Japan. These areas were known as East Indies, and all trade was shut down by Ottoman Turks. Obviously, these passages to the East Indies were denied to Christians by the Ottoman Muslim Turks who controlled overland routes to the Orient. In its path was all sorts of impediments with other unforeseen hazards eventually made this trip too dangerous as well as expensive.

Consequently, Portugal ascended to a status of a world power during Europe's " Age of Discovery " as it built up a vast empire, including Brazil along with possessions in Africa, together with territories in Asia. Indeed, they were successful in using maritime routes to bypass trans-Saharan overland trade routes controlled by Islamic Ottoman Turks.

Mindfully, Christopher Columbus embraced a different navigational solution by sailing west. Unknown to him was two continents making his idea a guaranteed failure. None-the-less, Granada fell on January 2, 1492. Shortly afterward the Spanish monarchy sponsored all of his  voyages. On his first voyage, he was outfitted with three ship.

Later in the year, Christopher Columbus made his initial voyage on August 3, 1492. Without question, this voyage was a miserable failure because his flag ship Santa Maria was beached in Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic and Haiti.) Beside that, there was no gold to be found. Actually, he had absolutely no glue  to where he was. On Columbus's return to Spain, he managed to convince the Monarchy with a letter indicating there was an abundance of gold and untold amounts of land to be conquered. The Spanish Monarchy elated by his letter of fabrication. So, as promised they reward him with a title “Admiral of the Ocean Sea ” along with being governor-general on his so-called NEW WORLD.
Notably,   peasants and serfs were oppressed by landlords for centuries. For them, this was an opportunity for a new beginning with thoughts of acquiring land and gold. Naturally, there were no problems recruiting volunteers to become conquistadors. Among them were pig farmers, thieves, adventures and those whom just want to leave Europe. Mindfully, after centuries of warfare and building of castles, trees were cut down by the thousands. Unfortunately, the land could no longer accommodate the growing populations. Without its tree's the rivers, along with its waterways became polluted, which destroyed fishing industries. It is safe to say; Europe was unable to accommodate its growing population. Therefore, colonization in foreign lands was their only feasible option.

His second voyage on September 23, 1493, began European's Conquest that was followed with numerous ships crossing the Atlantic. This was Spain's transformation from being conquered by the Moors into becoming a conqueror themselves. This conquering concept has been embraced, modified and used  to this day. It was first mandated by Queen Isabella and King Fernando with a blessing of the Pope.   Therefore, Columbus was given a flotilla of 17 ships, domesticated animals, along with 1,200 men, attack dogs, as well as canons with several priests. His orders were to colonize Hispaniola then continue his journey to locate mainland India.

When Columbus stumbled upon what is now known as the Caribbean Islands. There were millions of buffalo, together with antelopes roaming without any pollution. As a matter of fact, from the Pacific Ocean to Florida, you could not see the land because of the trees. Thousand of different types of fish were in abundance as well as the oceans and waterways were pristine along with  indigenous populations which thrived.

These conquering initiatives were carried out by Conquistadors, who pillaged, rape and robbed to make Spain the envy of the world. The indigenous population was no match against these strangers whom had horses giving them mobility along with their weapon superiority. Even more devastating was they lack immunity from Europeans disease such as small pox, measles or a common cold causing millions of them to die.

Within a few short decades, Spain created one of the most formidable empires in European history by conquering and colonizing vast stretches of land. In 1508, about 16 years after Columbus first stumbled upon America a total of 45 ships had crossed the Atlantic to the Caribbean islands, bringing settlers and supplies. They introduced crops, especially sugarcane, and animals, including cattle, mules, sheep, horses, along with pigs. This was Europe’s first conquering expedition which is  another bid of evidence of their intentions of colonizing. The accusation cannot be denied because of conquistadors " Requirement " proclamation, which informed indigenous people to submit their land and resources to Iberian Monarchy.

The Spanish Empire began with territories and colonies in America, Asia and also, Oceania. At the peak of its power, it was one of the largest empires in world history. The fourteenth century, although African civilizations were declining, at that time Europe was recovering from their Dark Ages. And in this time period, people of color along with Africans embraced their own languages along with religions and was not influenced, or dominated by any foreign power.

A hidden historical event is when Spanish missionaries lobbied, successfully to end indigenous slavery by replacing them with Africans. At first, it begins with a trickle into some Caribbean islands in 1508. This was led by Spain, especially when gold was found in Mexico, Peru along with Potosi silver mines in Bolivia. Then there were Portugal's importations of a huge amount of slaves into Brazil for their large-scale sugar production. Slavery is an old business that has been since the dawn of humanity. In Europe, by the sixteenth century, there was a tremendous demand for laborers in their colonies. The Spanish and Portuguese led the way, and later was followed by England to use slaves from Africa.

 Trading for slaves was an ancient practice among Africans as well as other cultures. However, within Africa, many societies recognized them merely as property, but others saw them as dependents, which eventually might be integrated into families of the slave owners. Still other societies allowed slaves to attain positions of military or administrative power. Most often, both owners and also, slaves were Africans, although they were frequently of different micro-nations (known in western societies as tribes).

Traditionally, African slaves were bought to perform menial or domestic labor, to serve as wives or concubines, or to enhance statuses of the slave owner. However, treatment of slaves was vastly different and less cruel than the treatment of slaves by Arabs as well as, Christians. European traders took refuge in the fact that Arab's and even the Africans themselves had already sold slaves before them so the obtainment of this labor seemed acceptable plus economically necessary.

 The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
 
The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas was authored by Pope Alexander VI, Ferdinand II of Aragon Isabella I of Castile, Prince John of Asturias, and  John II of Portugal, whom assigned territories eastward of the line through Brazil to Portugal and the territory to the west of it to Spain. With this arrangement, Portugal gained a monopoly in the slave trade on the African coast. On the other hand, Spain got a free hand in the Caribbean Islands, Central and South America.

When the Portuguese arrived in Brazil in the early 1500s, their situation as colonialist was very different from Spain's. They did not find an advanced civilization with hoards of precious metals for plunder, or discipline organizations geared to provide steady tribute which they could be appropriated and shipped back to Portugal.

Brazilian native populations were mainly hunters or gatherers, though some were agricultural using slash–and–burn techniques to cultivate manioc that is a plant that cassava bread is made. In the first century of settlement, it became clear that it was difficult to use indigenous people as slave labor. Notably, they had high mortality when exposed to Western diseases, could run away and hide rather easily. So Portugal turned to importing African slaves for manual labor. The ultimate fates of Brazilian indigenous population were killed or pushed beyond fringes of colonial society. And also, there was greater miscegenation between young white men with African feminine slaves in Brazil, as well as Spanish Territories.

This was similar to Moorish occupation where both conquerors were men, and their biological needs were satisfied by their female captives. As results, a cultural system called " Whitening " that has been institutionalized condoning mixing that produces an assortment of mulattoes. There are over a hundred types of mulattoes with each having a different economic status.

A larger proportion of Portugal gains from Brazil came from development of commodity exports with commercial profit than those of Spain from its colonies. Mindfully, because of the Tordesillas Treaty, Portugal was given control of the slave plantation system being developed off island's African shores. Such as Cape Verde, Principe, Madeira and Sao Tome. Mindfully, ninety-five percent of slaves were sent to Brazil and in comparison, the British colonies constituted 6 percent of African slaves.

 When Christopher Columbus’s accidental arrived on a Caribbean island that he called Hispaniola, he planted a flag declaring it a protectorate of Spain. This was a first colony outside of Europe. What followed was King Ferdinand together with Queen Isabella sending conquistadors across the Atlantic to claim land for their kingdom. In 1519, Hernan Cortes arrived in Mexico with horses along with 500 soldiers. These Aztecs were not sure what to think about these strangers because they had never seen men dressed in metal armor let alone riding horses. They thought Cortez was their Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl, and they welcomed him as if he was a great god, but soon realized their mistake. Which later was a devastation of its native people that was done by Conquistadors with major help of epidemic diseases that indigenous people had no immunity. Which allowed Spaniards to lay claim to Caribbean Islands, which was followed by annihilation of Aztec, Inca and Maya's empires. This was along with colonization of Latin America together with a few Caribbean islands.

The conquistadors had  smallpox, which killed huge numbers of Aztec warriors. Without these warriors, they  were unable to fight off Cortez, who with help of surrounding indigenous foes, who hated Aztec rulers, Cortes proceeded to conquer Maya’s in present-day Mexico and other empires. The Inca Empire met the same fate as the Aztecs. Smallpox would also help another Spanish conquistador, Francisco Pizarro; who conquered Incas in South America.. Francisco Pizarro's victory would be easy because lucky for him smallpox had reached Peru many months before him. The disease killed thousands of Incas leaving this empire badly split. He captures Inca's ruler, Atahualpa, easily.

Pizarro promised that he would release Atahualpa if the Incas gave him gold. The Incas complied in order to save their ruler, but he never kept his promise. Once he received the gold and silver, Pizarro killed Atahualpa. Another great empire fell. Spain would continue to conquer most of South America growing from an insignificant country in Europe into a world power. It was because of their stolen gold artifacts as well as silver along with everything else of value. Noteworthy, some of these ships were so overload with treasure a few of them sunk. During the same time, other artifacts were stolen from Spain's treasure ships at sea by pirates. Within the identical stealing contexts, other European nations hired pirates on their behalf; Particularly England who commissioned Sir Frances Drake, vice admiral who was a sea captain, pirate privateer, slaver, and politician all in the service of Queen Elizabeth.

Initially, Spain and England had cordial relations; however, that slowly deteriorated. Especially, when Spain's monarchy got tired of them pirating their treasury ships. Mindfully, these artifacts were results of Spain plundering destroying indigenous civilizations. Another thorn in Spain's side was England was Protestant and Spain being Catholic was another major reason for their discord.

Therefore, this was another justification for destroying England.  Spain proceeded to build an Armada or fleet.  This was done at tremendous cost from Spain's treasury. The Armada was new technology and supposedly invincible. This was not the  case at all because  fleet was decisively defeated in 1885. The defeat of the Spanish Armada is one of the most famous events in English history. It was arguably Queen Elizabeth's finest hour. For years, she had been hailed as the English Deborah, the savior of the English people, and now it seemed that this is what she really became.

 
England's 1607 Jamestown Colony

England was victorious, which catapult them into a world sea power. Using their new status, they began to colonize areas not yet occupied by Portugal nor Spain. In 1606, King James I of England gave the Virginia Company of London the charter to establish a new colony in North America. They financed an expedition of 144 men (105 settlers and 39 crewmen) to travel to America aboard three ships named the Susan Constant, Godspeed, and Discovery. They set sail on December 20, 1606. This settlement would name James town in honor of its King. Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in North America.

It was founded in 1607 and served as the capital of the Virginia colony for over 80 years. The first settlers of Jamestown were all men. Most of them were gentlemen looking for gold. They hoped to get rich quick and then return to England. Few of them were used to the hard  work that it took to survive in the New World. They didn't know how to fish, hunt, or farm. Their lack of basic survival skills would make the initial years very difficult if not impossible. The first year was a disaster for these settlers. More than half of the original settlers died during a harsh winter. Most of them died from diseases, germs from the water, and starvation.

When  Captain John Smith took over the leadership of the colony that relationships improved. When Smith attempted to visit the Powhatan Chief, he was taken captive. His life  was saved when the chief's 12 year old daughter, Pocahontas, intervened and saved him. After this event, the relationship between the two groups improved and the settlers could trade with the Powhatan for much-needed goods. It was in the summer of 1608 that Captain John Smith became the president of the colony. Unlike the other leaders, Smith was not a " gentleman ",  but an experienced seaman and soldier. Smith's leadership gave the colony a chance to survive. However,  the winter after John Smith left (1609-1610) turned out to be the worst year in the settlement history. It is often called the " starving time " because only 60 of the 500 settlers living in Jamestown survived that winter.

After a harsh winter, these few settlers left were determined to abandon the colony. When fresh supplies and colonists arrived from England in the spring, they decided to stay. Things began to turn around.  Especially, when John Rolfe introduced tobacco the  Virginia  colony  grow rapidly over the next several years. England then used indentured servants to develop this colony.   Whom were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia. Once they arrived, food, clothing, along with shelter were supplied. Adults usually served for four to seven years and children sometimes for much longer, with most working in the colony's tobacco fields. With a long history in England, indentured servitude was used, during most of the seventeenth century, a primary means by which Virginia planters filled their inexhaustible need for labor.

In 1619, twenty Africans were bartered for tobacco at Jamestown. Some time later, a shipment of 100 white women indenture servants was bought to expand its population. Jamestown began to grow and its early days, Africans together with European indenture servants fraternize with each other without any racial issues. Moreover, they ate, work along side each other having babies among themselves. The status of Africans in colonial America underwent a rapid evolution after 1619.
 
Beginning, with a  judicial decision that  changed European attitudes toward Africans. In 1640, three Virginia servants—John Punch, James Gregory, along with a man named Victor, were all indentured servants was contracted to Virginia's planter Hugh Gwyn. Upon recapture, these three men each performed similar task as slaves, each suffered unimaginable cruelty was willing  to escape in pursue of freedom. John, James, along with Victor ran away but were captured within days. Though fleeing similar circumstances, the fates of these runaways differed under the court's interpretation. A judge sentenced all three to whippings. He then added four years to the indenture terms of James and Victor, both white Europeans. John, an African, was condemned to lifelong servitude. Which was a precursor to chattel slavery. Which  is a life time of slavery that equates Africans as personal property as well as their new born.


1676 Bacon Rebellion

Forty years later was Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 covers a wide range of events that was a precursor to America's Revolution against England, which occurred a century after. Early colonies had a difficult time surviving under England's rule using indenture servants to develop their settlements. In order to fill this endless need, prisons were emptied along with brothels together with children from orphan homes. At times, servants organized rebellions. Resistance to the colonial status quo by the English and European poor was exhibited by desertions' en mass, by work rebellions, by mutinies on seas, as well as work slowdowns. There were strikes by bakers, porters, truckers, and carriers. Court records from Virginia in 1671 inform us that Governor Berkeley had reported in previous years, that four out of five servants died of disease after their arrival.

  As a matter of fact, there was never any reference to race by color until 1691. This is the year when births and deaths were recorded by color that gave birth to the WHITE RACE. Finally, the worst fears of plantation's elite crystallized in Virginia in 1676 by Nathaniel Bacon. Who formed an anti-aristocratic movement symbolizing a mass resentment against the Virginia establishment. This began when hundreds of European freedmen, bond-servants joined by African slaves staged an armed insurrection against Virginia's colonial elite.

Notably,  Bacon's followers were Africans, along with indentured servants, along with  poor farmers whom united demanding better treatment. Noteworthy, white European servants along with Africans were forced into servitude are now united with each other in his army. Prior to the Beacon Rebellion Africans and Europeans ate, work, stole hogs and often times ran away together as well as socialized and had babies between each other. Notably, freed Africans could vote, participate in the colonies, politics, militia as well as owning indenture servants. Most disturbing was they fought in removing Aristocrats from power.

 All of this  end with  the burning Jamestown by Bacon rebels, in 1676, giving the  ruling class reasons for concern. Which eventually caused a creation of institutionalized racism based on color which eliminates Europeans along with Africans fraternizing together. Consequently, from Massachusetts to Georgia by the end of the 17th century, African men and women were officially defined as chattel slaves. In the early days of Jamestown, Africans and indenture servants fraternize with harmony. Noteworthy,  poor Europeans along with Africans were forced into servitude are now united together in his army. Subsequently, Britain soldiers defeated Bacon's forces, eventually, restored royal rule over Virginia's Jamestown colony. Bacons Rebellion was a famous event, but uprisings occurred throughout the colonies. Notably, before this colony was restored, the Aristocrats were forced to live on ships for a year until England could send reinforcements to put down the rebellion.
 
 What followed was a plethora of slave codes involving discipline together with its punishment were passed, by the Virginia Assembly with “benefits” for their European brethren. The Law of 1705 required masters to provide White servants whose indenture was up with 10 bushels of corn, 3 shillings, and a gun plus 50 acres of land; women servants got 15 bushels of corn and 40 shillings. The African servant got a life-time servitude that was the beginning of chattel slavery. Furthermore, in 1705, the law forbade any African from owning an indenture servant. In 1721, free Africans were deprived of their voting rights. By 1727, Virginia established the slave patrols, and all Europeans were required as their duty to hunt down Africans whom escaped.

Notably, poor Europeans were rewarded, giving them a financial incentive. By the 1760s the colonial rulers, the rich elite, had 150 years of ruling experience, and had formulated various tactics to deal with their different fears. And we have seen that the biggest fear among these wealthy plantation owners was the potential combination of European and African slaves. In response, over half a century, the elite passed codes, forcing Africans to be slaves as opposed Europeans. The elite had discovered that if they constructed a racially-based system of slavery, and gave the European servants just a bit more than the African servants received, they could effectively “buy-off” the Europeans. However, they had to create “white racism” in order to reach this goal.

In the mid-1700s the American Colonies were prospering, in part because they were issuing their own money called " Colonial Scrip, " which was strictly regulated and did not require the payment of any interest. When the bankers in Great Britain heard this, they turned to the British Parliament, which passed a law prohibiting the Colonial Scrip, forcing the colonists to accept the "Debt " or " Fiat " money issued by the Bank of England. Contrary to what history teaches, the American Revolution was not ignited by taxation on tea. According to Benjamin Franklin, it was because " the conditions [became] so reversed that the era of prosperity ended.

During the Revolution Benjamin Franklin said:  "The Colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been the poverty caused by the bad influence of the English bankers on the Parliament, which has caused in the Colonies' hatred of England and the Revolutionary War. " The Bank of England viewed America's monetary policies as a threat to their imperial power. Parliament had to do something. They decided to pass the currency act of 176, that regulated paper money issued by the colonies of British America. The Acts sought to protect British merchants and creditors from being paid in depreciated colonial currency. The policy created tension between the colonies and Great Britain, and was cited as a grievance by colonists early in the American Revolution. This restricted them from printing their own money and thereby forced payment of colonial taxes to England in gold or silver coins. The problem with that request is that the Pre-Revolutionary colonies were very poor and did not have sufficient gold and silver to make the payments. This new gold standard caused a severe economic depression, and ultimately rebellion in the colonies.

The American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies on the North American shores. The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists overthrew their rule. In 1775, Revolutionaries seized control of each of the thirteen colonial governments, set up the Second Continental Congress, and formed a Continental Army. The following year, they formally declared their independence as a new nation, the United States of America. From 1778 onward, other European powers would fight on the American side in the war. Meanwhile, indigenous population along with African slaves fought on both sides.

Throughout this war, the British would use their naval superiority to capture and occupy coastal cities, but control of the countryside (where 90% of the population lived) largely eluded them due to their relatively small land army. In early 1778, shortly after an American victory at Saratoga, New York, France entered the war against Britain; Spain and The Netherlands joined as allies of France over the next two years. French involvement proved decisive, with their naval victory in the Chesapeake leading to the surrender of a British army at Yorktown in 1781. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 ended the war and recognized the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by what is now Canada to the north, Florida to the south, and the Mississippi River to the west.

The early days of American economy were filled with trade routes stretching across the Atlantic in seemingly all directions. As with trade between European countries, goods coming into and out of the Americas tended to be a pattern. The money paid for one set of goods would be used for another and so on. A typical shipment of goods from Europe would consist of beads, cloth, hardware, rum, salt, or weapons. The shipment would go to Africa, where goods would be traded for people who were enslaved. A ship leaving Africa for America would contain hundreds of enslaved people, tightly packed in horrific conditions during the journey to an auction block somewhere in America.

Once in America, ships would unload slaves for molasses, rum, sugar, or tobacco then headed toward Great Britain, completing their trip. Profits' traders made were used to buy more slaves from Africa. Slavery in these New England colonies started later than it did in South America. During that time period buying plus selling slaves became a lucrative business. Europeans were the buyers' African themselves were the sellers. Because the Europeans was unable to penetrate Africa until the late eighteenth century.  

The change came about with the invention of quinine,   riverboats,   repeating rifles and the maximum machine gun.   Over a century they slowly penetrated Africa and it  was solidified with Chancellor Bismarck Berlin Conference in 1884.   Even till,  the massive amount of slaves imported out of  Africa  would have been impossible without collaboration of African Kingdoms. However, we  must remind ourselves, if there were no buyers for slaves than there would have been no need to purchase or sell them.

By the middle of the 18th century, France  Saint Domingue colonies became the largest as wells as, most brutal slave societies of the region, rivaling Brazil as a destination for enslaved Africans. The slave death rates were high because they were overwork and malnourished. Slaves worked from sun up to sun down in harsh conditions. They were supervised under demanding masters, who gave them little  or no medical care. They also had poor living conditions, and consequently. They contracted many diseases.

It took money and labor to cultivate and develop the colonies and when the Spanish found gold in Mexico, a conquest of this New World was on. In the ensuing century, the Spanish and Portuguese would claim and divide Latin America which includes Central America together with Mexico. It took the Dutch, French, and English a century to catch up, and colonization of the eastern coast and the Great Lakes basin followed. All of Europe took part in this lucrative slave trade but how they interacted among their slaves was different. The Portuguese, French and Spanish inter married. Whereas, many classes of mulattoes were produced causing the lightening of the skin in Latin America.   

However,   in the English colonies they bought along their families.  Haiti was an exception because they maintained their  African culture. On the other hand, The British/American chose not to mix, but they did not mind having a concubine or two. However, they instituted a one drop of " Negro Blood Rule. " One drop of Negro blood would cause a person to be categorized as non-white. Although, slavery was profitable, it also was a dangerous business. At every opportunity, slaves would  rebelled, ran away or torching their harvest crops and when the opportunity presented itself would burn down their master's house. Other slaves took to the high seas and became pirates. Mindfully, the captains of these ships would seek  out these runs always because they could depend on them in battle. Obviously, they would fight to death before becoming  returning to  slavery. While other  Africans  organize maroon colonies avoiding slavery at the same time embracing their ethnicity.

Maroons were runaways in the West Indies, Central, South, as well as, North America, who formed independent settlements together. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, in remote areas throughout the Americas along with the Caribbean Islands, hundreds of thousands of self-liberated Africans created hundreds communities in blatant defiance against the slave system. The Industrial Revolution began in England that was followed by Europe together with North and later South America. Mindfully, slavery financed this revolution that created advance techniques not only in industries but for weapons as well. This advancement in weapons along with divide and conquer strategy with the Christian bible was an integral part of their conquering toolbox. This was a major cause of Europe with Americas rapid advancement into the 20th century.

Factually, Western culture societies jealously guarded these industrial secrets and used their superiority of weapons to conquer a large percentage of the world. This is not a frivolous accusation when considering three continents is results of Europeans' conquest, which is South, and North America together with Australia. These descendants consist of a bulk of these populations. That also includes Africa, which has been heavily influenced by a Berlin Conference in 1884-85, which will be covered next. Factually, Europe is not a continent. However, it is located on the western side of Asia. This was another water shed moment in history of changing from hand and home production to manufacturing. That was important for inventions of spinning and weaving machines operated by water power, which was eventually replaced by steam. This helped increase Europe's and America's growth that truly changed these societies and economy into what it is today.

 Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a driving force behind a social change between the 18th and 19th centuries. It affected nearly all aspects of life through inventions, legislation, and spawned a new economy. Due to many inventions such as the steam engine, locomotive and powered looms' production and transportation of goods radically changed. With mechanized machinery, factories could be built and used to mass produce goods at a rate than human labor at no time achieves. Western culture was the main recipients enjoying a comfort at no time before in their history. This was at the expense of other cultures whom they destroyed in the process. Which caused the creation of  three continents, which are South, and North America along with Australia.

This was in an era where inventions replaced manual labor. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced. Most notably, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In two centuries following 1800, the world's average per capita income increased over 10-fold, while the world's population increased over 6- fold.

Besides the Industrial Revolution, other historical events occurred about the same time.   Ever since President Jefferson's acquisition of Louisiana Territory in 1803, Americans migrated westward in ever-increasing numbers, often into lands not belonging to them. When James K. Polk became president in 1845, a doctrine called " Manifest Destiny " had taken root among Americans, and the new occupant of the White House was a firm believer in the idea of expansion. The belief that the U.S. basically had a God-given right to occupy and " civilize " the whole continent gained favor as more and more Americans settled the western lands. The fact that most of those areas already had people living upon them was usually ignored.

 After President Polk's victory the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on February 2, 1848, Mexico ceded to America nearly all territory now included in the states of New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, Texas, and Colorado, which completed Americans' expansion to the Pacific Ocean, and this for fill President Polk's Manifest Destiny declaration.  The industrial growth centered chiefly in the North. The war-torn South lagged behind the rest of the country economically. In the West, frontier life was ending; the American role in foreign affairs as well changed during the late 1800s and early 1900s. The country built up its military strength and became a world power in conjunction with the rise of big business the value of goods produced by industry increased almost tenfold between 1870 and 1916. Many interrelated developments contributed to this growth.

Besides the Abolitionist and runaway slaves, the issues that caused the Civil War had been brewing since the United States was formed. The most important cause's southerners listed for the war were unfair taxation, states' rights, and issues of new territories becoming slave or free states. The history and economy of the North were very different from those of the South. The Industrial Revolution help developed factories in the North, while large cotton plantations developed in the South. The Southern plantation owners relied on slave labor for economic success. Their crops were sold to cotton mills in England, and the ships returned with cheap manufactured goods produced in Europe. By the early 1800s, factories in the north were producing many of those same goods, and their politicians could pass heavy taxes on imported goods from Europe.

Consequently, Southerners felt that the government was passing laws, such as import taxes, that treated them unfairly. They believed that states had the right to " nullify, " or overturn, any law the Federal government passed. They also believed that individual states had the right to leave the United States and from their own independent country. Most people in the North believed that the concepts of " nullification " and " states' rights " would make the United States a weaker country and were against these ideas.

Meanwhile, in the North, many religious groups worked hard to end slavery in the United States. They were morally opposed to the idea that one person could " own " another. Abolitionists in the North wrote books, published newspapers spreading their ideas about slavery, and often assisted them to freedom when they escaped from their masters. Southerners believed that abolitionists were attacking their way of life and that the government was not doing enough to protect their " property " from running away. Southerners were also concerned new states were entering the Union did not permit citizens to own slaves, because the more " free " states entered the Union. The weaker Southerners' influence in the government would become.

The war began as the result of a dispute between southern states and northern slates regarding the taxation of cotton exports along with new territories becoming free states. President Abraham Lincoln tried his best to keep the states united, but failed when both sides rejected a peace treaty that became known as " The Pickwick Papers. " Instead of choosing peace, these states picked sides: the south became known as " The Confederacy, " and the north known as " The Union. " The United States Civil War was the bloodiest conflict in American History, claiming more lives than The American Revolutionary War, The War of 1812, World War, I, World War II, Korean War and the Vietnam War combined.

On June 15, 1865, President Lincoln went to Camp David where General Lee and General Grant were both waiting inside a modest tent to sign the " Treaty of Ghent, " which brought an official end to the Civil War. What, if anything, did the Civil War accomplish? From our perspective, slaves were immediately set free, with passing of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. Noteworthy, Abraham Lincoln Emancipation Proclamation supposedly freeing African slaves is a major misconception. His Emancipation was an executive order, which was a clever ploy of reputedly freeing slaves in the Confederacy, which he had no control. Actually, he could NOT free the slaves if he wanted to because slavery was written on the constitution which required an amendment to change. As results, thousands of slaves ran away, which weaken the South economies. Obviously, this Civil War residue has caused a chasm between the South and North that even exists today.

 Berlin Conference 1884-1885

1870, is when Europeans made little headway into Africa, either as conquerors or explorers, mainly because of their lack of resistance to the area's tropical diseases. The disease-ridden coast of West Africa had the most fearsome reputation of any part of the Dark Continent. However, there were increasing numbers of white men in the 19th century ready to brave malaria and yellow fever to trade, to preach, to rule and if necessary, to die for European's interests in minor colonial wars. By 1914, they had established a new Empire there and laid the foundation of modern African states. This left Africa in a shroud of mystery that earned it the title of the " Dark Continent. "

After 1870, Europeans made rapid inroads into Africa thanks to the industrial revolution which introduced breech-loading rifles together with Maxim's machine guns. One development got Europeans interested in Africa that triggered a virtual land rush there. It was a highly publicized expedition by the journalist, Henry Stanley to find the explorer David Livingston that had been missing for some time. Stanley mostly remembered for his quotation, " Dr. Livingston, I presume, " especially interested was King Leopold of Belgium, who ruthlessly conquered and exploited the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

By 1875, European possessions in Africa consisted of some forts and trading posts along the coast and a few tiny colonies. There are several reasons why they competed with each other to gain colonies in Africa. In the second half of the nineteenth century, after more than four centuries of contact, the European powers finally laid claim to virtually all of Africa. Parts of the continent had been " explored, " but now representatives of European governments and rulers arrived to create or expand African spheres of influence for their patrons. Competition was intense. Spheres of influence began to crowd each other. It was time for negotiations; a conference was convened in Berlin to sort things out. This conference laid the groundwork for the now-familiar politico-geographical map of Africa.

In November 1884, the imperial chancellor and architect of Germans Empire, Otto Von Bismarck, convened a conference of 14 countries (including the United States along with Turkey) to settle political partitioning of Africa. Bismarck wanted not only to expand German spheres of influence but also to play off Germany's rivals against one another to the Germans' advantage. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, Belgium and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time meeting at the Berlin residence of Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck in 1884. The foreign ministers of fourteen European powers along with the Ottoman Empire together with the United States established standards for the future exploitation of the " dark continent. " Africans were not invited or made privy to their decisions.

In the late nineteenth century, western powers divided Africa and its resources into political partitions at the Berlin Conference of 1884-85. By 1905, African soil was almost completely controlled by Imperialistic governments, except Ethiopia (which had successfully resisted colonization by Italy). Britain together with France had the largest holdings, but Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgian, as well as Portugal also had colonies.

 As a result of colonialism together with imperialism, Africa is still suffering its long-term effects, such as constantly losing natural resources like gold and rubber, economic devastation, cultural confusion, geopolitical division, and political subjugation. Europeans often justified using a concept of the White Man's Burden, which was an obligation to " civilize " the peoples of Africa. The real reason is Africa was tremendously rich in natural resources, which could be brought to Europe and turned into manufactured goods. Europeans also needed markets for their finished products. These goods could be sold in Africa for large profits. Often a nation would rule over territory in Africa simply to prevent another European country from taking it.